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Muhammad Umar

BS (Computer Science)


Basics of Computer, this text will enhance an initial learning and provides a technical and theoretical approach to the students of Information Technology and Computer Science.

A chapter wise approach provided navigation through the material, easy to grasp the language, clear technical definitions, and appropriate illustrations give an understandable read to students.

The book will serve as a toolkit for naive and experts as well. Honestly, Basics of Computer is an ultimate source of knowledge, for those who know about technology and for those who are curious about computers.

I request students and readers to give suggestions and feedback so that I can improve the book.

Muhammad Umar



Copyright (c) 2018 by Muhammad Umar

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical or other means now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the author.

Thank you for downloading this ebook. This book remains the copyrighted property of the author, and may not be redistributed to others for commercial or non-commercial purposes. If you enjoyed this book, please encourage your friends to download their own copy from their favorite authorized retailer. Thank you for your support.


To my father and brother





Chapter 1: Introduction to Information Technology

Chapter 2: Introduction to Personal Computer

Chapter 3: Storage Devices

Chapter 4: Software and Algorithm

Chapter 5: Productive Enhancement Software Packages

Chapter 6: Computer Codes

Chapter 7: CAD and CAM

Chapter 8: Fundamental of Networks

About the Author

A Humble Request

Other Books in Fast Series

Chapter 1 :

Introduction to

In this chapter:

  • Information Technology

  • Information & Communication Technology (ICT)

  • Computer definition z

  • A computer is defined in many ways

  • Computer versus Calculator

  • Alphabetic Data

  • Data

  • Types of data

  • History of computing

  • Dark Ages (3000 B.C - 1890 A.D.)

  • Abacus

  • Napier's bones

  • Slide Rule

  • Pascaline

  • Leibniz Calculator

  • Joseph Marie Jacquard

  • Babbage's Difference Engine

  • Babbage's Analytical Engine

  • The Middle Ages (1890 A.D. - 1944 A.D.)

  • Tabulating Machine

  • Sorting machine

  • Verifiers and collators

  • The Modern Age (Since 1944)

  • Atanasoff-Berry Computer

  • Mark-I or ASCC





Information Technology

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

The use of computers, software and telecommunication equipment for data manipulation is called Information Technology (IT), which is also known as Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Basically, it deals with the manipulation of information; that is, information is processed, converted, stored, protected, transferred and retrieved with the help of electronic computers and software. The term, ICT is widely used in the context of computers but it also covers other information distribution technologies such as radio, telephone, and television.


The term computer can be used for any kind of calculating device that can perform simple or complex computations. In other words, any device capable of performing calculations is referred to as a computer. In general, the term is applied only to an electronic digital computer. Generally, this computer comes with a Central Processing Unit (CPU), keyboard, mouse, and monitor. A typical computer is shown in the Figure 01.

Here are some useful definitions of a computer.

  • A computer is a complex machine which receives data in the form of input, processes it and finally gives result in the form of output.

  • A computer is an electronic device with the capability of accepting data, running predefined processes on data and providing outputs of these processes.

  • A computer is an automatic device which processes provided input data in a predefined way and supplies the required results.

  • A computer is a computational device which gets data from several input devices. It processes the given data through a set of stored instructions at a very high speed and precision. When required processes on data are completed, the result is provided on output devices.

Difference between Computer and Calculator

A computer is an electronic machine that allows you to solve problems. This basic definition also fits on a simple calculator. However, there are three main differences between computer and calculator which are listed below.

(i) Internal memory

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