Excerpt for CISA Exam - Testing Concept-Network Physical Media (Fiber Optic/ UTP/STP/Co-axial) (Domain-4) by , available in its entirety at Smashwords





Domain-4



Testing Concept-Network Physical Media (Fiber Optic/ UTP/STP/Co-axial)













Hemang Doshi

CISA, ACA, DISA, FIII



Details about this E-Book:

The objective of this e-book is to ensure that CISA candidate get adequate knowledge on concept of various network physical media such as fiber optic, twisted pair, co-axial etc. Concepts have been simplified for easy reference of CISA candidates.

Questions, Answers and Explanation (QAE) on concept are designed in accordance with CISA exam pattern.







Types of Network Physical Media

CRM covers following types of network physical media specifications:

  • Twisted Pairs ( shielded twisted pairs and unshielded twisted pairs)

  • Fiber-optics

  • Infrared & radio (wireless)



(1)Twisted Pair:



-Twisted pairs are also known as copper circuits.

-Twisted pair can be either shielded twisted pair or unshielded twisted pair.

Shielded Twisted Pair (STP):

-Two insulated wires are twisted around each other, with current flowing through them in opposite direction.

-This reduces the opportunity for cross talk and allows for lower sensitivity for electromagnetic disturbances.

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP):

-For unshielded twisted pair a disadvantage is that it is not immune to effect of electromagnetic interface (EMI).

-Unshielded twisted pair should be away from potential interference such as fluorescent lights.

-Parallel runs of cable over long distances should be avoided since the signals on one cable can interfere with signals on adjacent cables (i.e. cross talk).

(2)Fiber-Optic:



-Glass fibers are used to carry binary signals as flashes of light.

-Fiber-optic systems have very low transmission loss.

-Fiber-optics are not affected by electromagnetic interference (EMI).

- Fiber-optic cables have proven to be more secure than the other media.

-Fiber is preferred choice for high volume and long distance calls.

(3)Coaxial Cables



What is alternate routing and diverse routing?

Alternate Routing:

Alternative routing is the method of routing information via an alternative medium, such as copper cable or fiber optics.

Alternate routing can be further bifurcated in two types:

Last mile circuit protection:

Last mile circuit protection provides redundancy for local communication loop.

Long haul network diversity:

Long haul network diversity provides redundancy for long distance availability.



Diverse Routing:

Diverse routing is the method of routing traffic through split-cable facilities or duplicate-cable facilities.



Difference between alternate routing and diverse routing:

Other Important Terms:

(1)Attenuation:

-Attenuation is the weakening of signals during transmission.

-Attenuation exists in both wired and wireless transmissions.

-Length of wire impacts the severity of attenuation.

(2)Electromagnetic Interference (EMI):

-EMI is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit.

-The disturbance may degrade the performance of the circuit or even stop it from functioning. In the case of a data path, these effects can range from an increase in error rate to a total loss of the data.

-EMI is caused by electrical storms or noisy electrical equipments (e.g. motors, fluorescent lighting, radio transmitters etc.)

(3)Cross-Talks:

Crosstalk is electromagnetic interference from one unshielded twisted pair to another twisted pair, normally running in parallel.









Point to remember for CISA Exam:

(1)In any given situation, fiber-optic cables have proven to be more secure than the other media. They have very low transmission loss, not affected by EMI and preferred choice for high volumes and long distance calls.

(2)When CISA question is about transmission error that can occur in wired as well as wireless communication, our answer should be attenuation.

(3)It is essential to understand the difference between diverse routing and alternate routing. The method of routing traffic through split-cable facilities or duplicate-cable facilities is called diverse routing. Whereas the method of routing information via an alternative medium, such as copper cable or fiber optics is called alternate routing.

(4)Also, CISA aspirant should be able to differentiate between last mile and long haul. Last mile provide redundancy for local loop whereas long haul provide redundancy for long distance availability.



Question, Answer & Explanation:

Below QAE are solely on the concept of various physical media. Candidates are advised to attempt below questions multiple times. More emphasis to be given on explanation part for better understanding.

(1)An organisation is considering type of transmission media which provide best security against unauthorized access. Which of the following provides best security?

A. Unshielded twisted pair

B. Shielded twisted pair

C. Fiber-optic cables

D.Coaxial cables


Answer: C. Fiber-optic cables


Explanation:

In fiber-optic cables, glass fibers are used to carry binary signals as flashes of light- Fiber-optic cables have proven to be more secure than the other media. They have very low transmission loss, not affected by EMI and preferred choice for high volumes and long distance calls.

(2)Which of the following transmission error can occur in wired as well as wireless communication?

A. Cross-talk

B. Attenuation

C. Sags, spikes and surges

D. Multipath interference


Answer: B. Attenuation


Explanation:

Attenuation is the weakening of signals during transmission. Attenuation can occur in both wired and wireless transmissions. Crosstalk can refer to electromagnetic interference from one unshielded twisted pair to another twisted pair, normally running in parallel. Cross-talk occurs only in wired communication. Multipath interference results in a direct signal coming with one or more

reflected radio (wireless) signals.

(3) Which of the following transmission error can be caused by the length of cable if UTP is more than 100 meters long?

A. Electromagnetic interference (EMI)

B. Cross-talk

C. Attenuation

D. Sags, spikes and surges


Answer: C. Attenuation


Explanation:

Attenuation is the weakening of signals during transmission. Attenuation exists in both wired and wireless transmissions. Length of wire impacts the severity of attenuation. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) is caused by outside disturbance which is not the case here. Sags spikes & surges and cross-talk has nothing to do with the length of the UTP cable.


(4)An organisation is routing traffic through split -cable or duplicate-cable facilities. This arrangement is called:


A. Diverse routing

B. Alternate routing

C. Gateway

D.Bridge


Answer: A. Diverse routing


Explanation:

The method of routing traffic through split-cable facilities or duplicate-cable facilities is called diverse routing. Alternative routing is the method of routing information via an alternative medium, such as copper cable or fiber optics. Gateway and Bridge is used for network extension.


(5)To minimize the risk of data corruption, which of the following options can be effective?

A. Separate conduits for electrical and data cables.

B. Encryption

C.Check-digits

D. Hashing

Answer: A. Separate conduits for electrical and data cables.


Explanation:

Using separate conduits for data cables and electrical cables, minimizes the risk of data

corruption due to an induced magnetic field created by electrical current.

Other options will not prevent data from being corrupted. Data encryption minimizes the risk of data leakage & hashing ensures data integrity however they cannot prevent corruption.

A check-digit will help detect the data corruption during communication, but will not prevent it.


(6)Which transmission method would provide best security?

A.Dedicated lines

B.Wireless Network

C.Dial-up

D.Broadband network


Answer: A.Dedicated lines


Explanation:

In computer networks and telecommunications, a dedicated line is a communications cable or other facility dedicated to a specific application, in contrast with a shared resource such as the telephone network or the Internet. Dedicated lines are most secured amongst the above options. Since there are no sharing of lines, data security can be assured.


(7)Use of redundant combinations (local carrier lines, microwaves and/or coaxial cables) to access local communication loop is known as:

A.last-mile circuit protection

B.long-haul network diversity

C.diverse routing

D.alternative routing


Answer: A.last-mile circuit protection


Explanation:

Use of redundant combinations (local carrier lines, microwaves and/or coaxial cables) to access local communication loop is known as last mile circuit protection. The method of providing telecommunication continuity through the use of redundant combinations to access the local communication loop in the event of a disaster is called last-mile circuit protection.

Long haul network diversity ensures long distance availability.

The method of routing traffic through split-cable facilities or duplicate cable facilities is called diverse routing.

Alternative routing is the method of routing information via an alternative medium such as copper cable or fiber optics.



Mock Test :


To attempt mock test on physical network media, please visit below link:

http://cisaexamstudy.com/physical-network-media-mock-test/



Other CISA Exam- Study Material


Domain 1


Steps of Risk Assessment


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F2j8xhPaFTg


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/622303


Types of Risk


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FvuvARXcjss



Compliance & Substantive Testing

https://youtu.be/3-u2mpIZzW8


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/625599



Difference between Inherent Risk & Residual Risk


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=72kv6yOpXEI


Difference between Vulnerability & Threat


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6KxEbth2Ziw


Audit Charter


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rbCJ3ceDuso

https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/633923


COBIT-5


https://youtu.be/WfwjpDdBqr4


Internal Controls


https://youtu.be/RuX2hLnm3vY


Control Self Assessment (CSA)


https://youtu.be/cGcMmt-03as


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/658967


Sampling


https://youtu.be/Ynif7SqvkvM


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/661847



Domain 2


Outsourcing Functions


https://youtu.be/vQsX6ZQSDXk


IT Strategy Committee & IT Steering Committee


https://youtu.be/Za9VMrSe094


IT Alignment with Business Objectives


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FEsP2LXSF9U


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/633047


IT Balanced Score Card


https://youtu.be/tvNAvAL9ZIg


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/639816


Roles of various functions of IT


https://youtu.be/UMDZrfp1W2Q


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/645822




Domain 3


Online Auditing Techniques


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HmGFIJlLu-4


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/637926


Parity-Checksum-CRC


https://youtu.be/Y14jVvOKqaU


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/656262


Check Digit


https://youtu.be/VH2yd3A6bMc


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/656262


PERT-CPM-Gantt Chart-FPA-EVA-Timebox


https://youtu.be/zYZYvcr_-3M


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/666753


Testing in SDLC


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=43nFUFzTbBU


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/687052


Software Development Methodology


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/733679


http://cisaexamstudy.com/agile-system-development-methodology-video-tutorial/






Domain 4


Recovery Time Objective (RTO) and Recovery Point Objective (RPO)


https://youtu.be/2rDusGnW9qw


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/646456



Alternate Recovery Site


https://youtu.be/jCpcqaazkY4


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/647476


Domain 5


Digital Signature


https://youtu.be/_N3jisd1Vis


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/648923


Wireless (Wi-Fi)Security


https://youtu.be/csbd_V9PknI


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/651918


Firewall Types


https://youtu.be/x650kcv6Mfk


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/654726


Firewall Implementation


https://youtu.be/lltKNTdjg4Y


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/654726


Logical Access


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/630325


Classification of Information Assets


https://youtu.be/z7MwD8_ayCs


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/669437



Asymmetric Encryption


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/674900


https://youtu.be/mCM6dyQ_KmQ



Elements of Public Key Infrastructure


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/679445


https://youtu.be/ZqVciCzS3ng


Biometrics


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/685250


https://youtu.be/EmTOytQv4yM



IDS & IPS


https://youtu.be/0J49Ij_l8VU


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/692601


OSI Architecture


https://youtu.be/vkjBo2_9aDE


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/703536


Single Sign On


https://youtu.be/ITIFz5pyAls


https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/707248







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